Python

One-page reference sheet for the differences between cpython and pocketpy.

#Getting Started

#Item Colors

color cpython pocketpy
green supported supported
grey supported not supported
yellow supported partially supported
red supported different
blue not supported supported

#Hello World

>>> print("Hello, World!")
Hello, World!

The famous "Hello World" program in Python

#Variables

age = 18      # age is of type int
name = "John" # name is now of type str
print(name)

Python can't declare a variable without assignment.

#Data Types

str Text
int, float, complex Numeric
list, tuple, range Sequence
dict Mapping
set, frozenset Set
bool Boolean
bytes, bytearray, memoryview Binary

See: Data Types

#Slicing String

>>> msg = "Hello, World!"
>>> print(msg[2:5])
llo

See: Strings

#Lists

mylist = []
mylist.append(1)
mylist.append(2)
for item in mylist:
    print(item) # prints out 1,2

See: Lists

#If Else

num = 200
if num > 0:
    print("num is greater than 0")
else:
    print("num is not greater than 0")

See: Flow control

#Loops

for item in range(6):
    if item == 3: break
    print(item)
else:
    print("Finally finished!")

See: Loops

#Functions

>>> def my_function():
...     print("Hello from a function")
...
>>> my_function()
Hello from a function

See: Functions

#File Handling

# `encoding` is always `utf-8` in pocketpy
with open("myfile.txt", "r") as file:
    print(file.read())

See: File Handling

#Arithmetic

result = 10 + 30 # => 40
result = 40 - 10 # => 30
result = 50 * 5  # => 250
result = 16 / 4  # => 4.0 (Float Division)
result = 16 // 4 # => 4 (Integer Division)
result = 25 % 2  # => 1
result = 5 ** 3  # => 125

// and % are not defined for float or negative numbers in pocketpy.

#Plus-Equals

counter = 0
counter += 10           # => 10
counter = 0
counter = counter + 10  # => 10

message = "Part 1."

# => Part 1.Part 2.
message += "Part 2."   

#++/--

a = 1
++a
assert a == 2

def f(a):
  --a
  return a

assert f(3) == 2

#f-Strings (Python 3.6+)

>>> website = 'Quickref.ME'
>>> f"Hello, {website}"
"Hello, Quickref.ME"

>>> num = 10
>>> f'{num} + 10 = {num + 10}'
'10 + 10 = 20'

See: Python F-Strings

#Python Built-in Data Types

#Strings

hello = "Hello World"
hello = 'Hello World'

multi_string = """Multiline Strings
Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet,
consectetur adipiscing elit """

See: Strings

#Numbers

x = 1    # int (limited precision)
y = 2.8  # float
# (unsupport) z = 1j   # complex

>>> print(type(x))
<class 'int'>

#Arbitrary Sized Integers

>>> x = 12345678901234567890L
>>> x
12345678901234567890L
>>> long("55555")
55555L
>>> 2L ** 1000
>>> 10715086071862673209484250490600018105614048117055336074437503883703510511249361224931983788156958581275946729175531468251871452856923140435984577574698574803934567774824230985421074605062371141877954182153046474983581941267398767559165543946077062914571196477686542167660429831652624386837205668069376L

#Booleans

my_bool = True 
my_bool = False

bool(0)     # => False
bool(1)     # => True

#Lists

list1 = ["apple", "banana", "cherry"]
list2 = [True, False, False]
list3 = [1, 5, 7, 9, 3]
list4 = list((1, 5, 7, 9, 3))

See: Lists

#Tuple

my_tuple = (1, 2, 3)
my_tuple = tuple((1, 2, 3))

Similar to List but immutable

#Set

set1 = {"a", "b", "c"}   
set2 = set(("a", "b", "c"))

a == {1, 2, 3}

assert a | {2, 3, 4} == {1, 2, 3, 4}
assert a & {2, 3, 4} == {2, 3}
assert a - {2, 3, 4} == {1}
assert a ^ {2, 3, 4} == {1, 4}

a.update({2, 3, 4})

assert a == {1, 2, 3, 4}

Set of unique items/objects

#Dictionary

>>> empty_dict = {}
>>> a = {"one": 1, "two": 2, "three": 3}
>>> a["one"]
1
>>> a.keys()
('one', 'two', 'three')
>>> a.values()
(1, 2, 3)
>>> a.update({"four": 4})
>>> a.keys()
('one', 'two', 'three', 'four')
>>> a['four']
4

Key: Value pair, JSON like object

#Casting

#Integers

x = int(1)   # x will be 1
y = int(2.8) # y will be 2
z = int("3") # z will be 3

#Floats

x = float(1)     # x will be 1.0
y = float(2.8)   # y will be 2.8
z = float("3")   # z will be 3.0
w = float("4.2") # w will be 4.2

#Strings

x = str("s1") # x will be 's1'
y = str(2)    # y will be '2'
z = str(3.0)  # z will be '3.0'

#Python Advanced Data Types

#Heaps

import heapq

myList = [9, 5, 4, 1, 3, 2]
heapq.heapify(myList) # turn myList into a Min Heap
print(myList)    # => [1, 3, 2, 5, 9, 4]
print(myList[0]) # first value is always the smallest in the heap

heapq.heappush(myList, 10) # insert 10
x = heapq.heappop(myList)  # pop and return smallest item
print(x)                   # => 1

#Negate all values to use Min Heap as Max Heap

myList = [9, 5, 4, 1, 3, 2]
myList = [-val for val in myList] # multiply by -1 to negate
heapq.heapify(myList)

x = heapq.heappop(myList)
print(-x) # => 9 (making sure to multiply by -1 again)

Heaps are binary trees for which every parent node has a value less than or equal to any of its children. Useful for accessing min/max value quickly. Time complexity: O(n) for heapify, O(log n) push and pop. See: Heapq

#Stacks and Queues

from collections import deque

q = deque()          # empty
q = deque([1, 2, 3]) # with values

q.append(4)     # append to right side
q.appendleft(0) # append to left side
print(q)    # => deque([0, 1, 2, 3, 4])

x = q.pop() # remove & return from right
y = q.popleft() # remove & return from left
print(x)    # => 4
print(y)    # => 0
print(q)    # => deque([1, 2, 3])

q.rotate(1) # rotate 1 step to the right
print(q)    # => deque([3, 1, 2])

Deque is a double-ended queue with O(1) time for append/pop operations from both sides. Used as stacks and queues. See: Deque

#Python Strings

#Array-like

>>> hello = "Hello, World"
>>> print(hello[1])
e
>>> print(hello[-1])
d

Get the character at position 1 or last

#Looping

>>> for char in "foo":
...     print(char)
f
o
o

Loop through the letters in the word "foo"

#Slicing string

 ┌───┬───┬───┬───┬───┬───┬───┐
 | m | y | b | a | c | o | n |
 └───┴───┴───┴───┴───┴───┴───┘
 0   1   2   3   4   5   6   7
-7  -6  -5  -4  -3  -2  -1

>>> s = 'mybacon'
>>> s[2:5]
'bac'
>>> s[0:2]
'my'
>>> s = 'mybacon'
>>> s[:2]
'my'
>>> s[2:]
'bacon'
>>> s[:2] + s[2:]
'mybacon'
>>> s[:]
'mybacon'
>>> s = 'mybacon'
>>> s[-5:-1]
'baco'
>>> s[2:6]
'baco'

#With a stride

>>> s = '12345' * 5
>>> s
'1234512345123451234512345'
>>> s[::5]
'11111'
>>> s[4::5]
'55555'
>>> s[::-5]
'55555'
>>> s[::-1]
'5432154321543215432154321'

#String Length

>>> hello = "Hello, World!"
>>> print(len(hello))
13

The len() function returns the length of a string

#Multiple copies

>>> s = '===+'
>>> n = 8
>>> s * n
'===+===+===+===+===+===+===+===+'

#Check String

>>> s = 'spam'
>>> s in 'I saw spamalot!'
True
>>> s not in 'I saw The Holy Grail!'
True

#Concatenates

>>> s = 'spam'
>>> t = 'egg'
>>> s + t
'spamegg'
>>> 'spam' 'egg'  # not supported
  File "<stdin>", line 1
    'spam' 'egg'
           ^
SyntaxError: expected statement end

#Formatting

#% formatting is not supported

name = "John"
print("Hello, %s!" % name)

name = "John"
age = 23
print("%s is %d years old." % (name, age))

#format() Method

# (unsupport) txt1 = "My name is {fname}, I'm {age}".format(fname="John", age=36)
txt2 = "My name is {0}, I'm {1}".format("John", 36)
txt3 = "My name is {}, I'm {}".format("John", 36)

#Input

>>> name = input("Enter your name: ")
Enter your name: Tom
>>> name
'Tom'

Get input data from console

#Join

>>> "#".join(["John", "Peter", "Vicky"])
'John#Peter#Vicky'

#Endswith

>>> "Hello, world!".endswith("!")
True

#Python F-Strings (Since Python 3.6+)

#f-Strings usage

>>> website = 'Quickref.ME'
>>> f"Hello, {website}"
"Hello, Quickref.ME"

>>> num = 10
>>> f'{num} + 10 = {num + 10}'
'10 + 10 = 20'

>>> f"""He said {"I'm John"}"""
"He said I'm John"

>>> f'5 {"{stars}"}'
'5 {stars}'
>>> f'{{5}} {"stars"}'
'{5} stars'

>>> name = 'Eric'
>>> age = 27
>>> f"""Hello!
...     I'm {name}.
...     I'm {age}."""
"Hello!\n    I'm Eric.\n    I'm 27."

it is available since Python 3.6, also see: Formatted string literals

#f-Strings Fill Align

>>> f'{"text":10}'     # [width]
'text      '
>>> f'{"test":*>10}'   # fill left
'******test'
>>> f'{"test":*<10}'   # fill right
'test******'
>>> f'{"test":*^10}'   # fill center
'***test***'
>>> f'{12345:0>10}'    # fill with numbers
'0000012345'
a = 10
assert f'{a:>10}' == '        10'
assert f'{a:<10}' == '10        '
assert f'{a:^10}' == '    10    '
assert f'{a:<10.2f}' == '10.00     '
assert f'{a:>10.2f}' == '     10.00'

assert f'{a:010}' == '0000000010'
assert f'{a:010d}' == '0000000010'
assert f'{a:010f}' == '010.000000'
assert f'{a:010.2f}' == '0000010.00'

#f-Strings Type

>>> f'{10:b}'        # binary type
'1010'
>>> f'{10:o}'        # octal type
'12'
>>> f'{200:x}'       # hexadecimal type
'c8'
>>> f'{200:X}'
'C8'
>>> f'{345600000000:e}' # scientific notation
'3.456000e+11'
>>> f'{65:c}'       # character type
'A'
>>> f'{10:#b}'      # [type] with notation (base)
'0b1010'
>>> f'{10:#o}'
'0o12'
>>> f'{10:#x}'
'0xa'

#F-Strings Others

>>> f'{-12345:0=10}'  # negative numbers
'-000012345'
>>> f'{12345:010}'    # [0] shortcut (no align)
'0000012345'
>>> f'{-12345:010}'
'-000012345'
>>> import math       # [.precision]
>>> math.pi
3.141592653589793
>>> f'{math.pi:.2f}'
'3.14'
>>> f'{1000000:,.2f}' # [grouping_option]
'1,000,000.00'
>>> f'{1000000:_.2f}'
'1_000_000.00'
>>> f'{0.25:0%}'      # percentage
'25.000000%'
>>> f'{0.25:.0%}'
'25%'

#F-Strings Sign

>>> f'{12345:+}'      # [sign] (+/-)
'+12345'
>>> f'{-12345:+}'
'-12345'
>>> f'{-12345:+10}'
'    -12345'
>>> f'{-12345:+010}'
'-000012345'

#Python Lists

#Defining

>>> li1 = []
>>> li1
[]
>>> li2 = [4, 5, 6]
>>> li2
[4, 5, 6]
>>> li3 = list((1, 2, 3))
>>> li3
[1, 2, 3]
>>> li4 = list(range(1, 11))
>>> li4
[1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10]

#Generate

>>> list(filter(lambda x : x % 2 == 1, range(1, 20)))
[1, 3, 5, 7, 9, 11, 13, 15, 17, 19]

>>> [x ** 2 for x in range (1, 11) if  x % 2 == 1]
[1, 9, 25, 49, 81]

>>> [x for x in [3, 4, 5, 6, 7] if x > 5]
[6, 7]

>>> list(filter(lambda x: x > 5, [3, 4, 5, 6, 7]))
[6, 7]

#Append

>>> li = []
>>> li.append(1)
>>> li
[1]
>>> li.append(2)
>>> li
[1, 2]
>>> li.append(4)
>>> li
[1, 2, 4]
>>> li.append(3)
>>> li
[1, 2, 4, 3]

#List Slicing

Syntax of list slicing:

a_list[start:end]
a_list[start:end:step]

#Slicing

>>> a = ['spam', 'egg', 'bacon', 'tomato', 'ham', 'lobster']
>>> a[2:5]
['bacon', 'tomato', 'ham']
>>> a[-5:-2]
['egg', 'bacon', 'tomato']
>>> a[1:4]
['egg', 'bacon', 'tomato']

#Omitting index

>>> a[:4]
['spam', 'egg', 'bacon', 'tomato']
>>> a[0:4]
['spam', 'egg', 'bacon', 'tomato']
>>> a[2:]
['bacon', 'tomato', 'ham', 'lobster']
>>> a[2:len(a)]
['bacon', 'tomato', 'ham', 'lobster']
>>> a
['spam', 'egg', 'bacon', 'tomato', 'ham', 'lobster']
>>> a[:]
['spam', 'egg', 'bacon', 'tomato', 'ham', 'lobster']

#With a stride

['spam', 'egg', 'bacon', 'tomato', 'ham', 'lobster']
>>> a[0:6:2]
['spam', 'bacon', 'ham']
>>> a[1:6:2]
['egg', 'tomato', 'lobster']
>>> a[6:0:-2]
['lobster', 'tomato', 'egg']
>>> a
['spam', 'egg', 'bacon', 'tomato', 'ham', 'lobster']
>>> a[::-1]
['lobster', 'ham', 'tomato', 'bacon', 'egg', 'spam']

#Remove

>>> li = ['bread', 'butter', 'milk']
>>> li.pop()
'milk'
>>> li
['bread', 'butter']
>>> del li[0]
>>> li
['butter']

#Access

>>> li = ['a', 'b', 'c', 'd']
>>> li[0]
'a'
>>> li[-1]
'd'
>>> li[4]
Traceback (most recent call last):
  File "<stdin>", line 1, in <module>
IndexError: list index out of range

#Concatenating

>>> odd = [1, 3, 5]
>>> odd.extend([9, 11, 13])
>>> odd
[1, 3, 5, 9, 11, 13]
>>> odd = [1, 3, 5]
>>> odd + [9, 11, 13]
[1, 3, 5, 9, 11, 13]

#Sort & Reverse

>>> li = [3, 1, 3, 2, 5]
>>> li.sort()
>>> li
[1, 2, 3, 3, 5]
>>> li.reverse()
>>> li
[5, 3, 3, 2, 1]

#Count

>>> li = [3, 1, 3, 2, 5]
>>> li.count(3)
2

#Repeating

>>> li = ["re"] * 3
>>> li
['re', 're', 're']

#Python Flow control

#Basic

num = 5
if num > 10:
    print("num is bigger than 10.")
elif num < 10:
    print("num is smaller than 10.")
else:
    print("num is indeed 10.")

#One line

>>> a = 330
>>> b = 200
>>> r = "a" if a > b else "b"
>>> print(r)
a

#else if

value = True
if not value:
    print("Value is False")
elif value is None:
    print("Value is None")
else:
    print("Value is True")

#match case

x = 1
match x:
  case 0:
    print("zero")
  case 1:
    print("one")
  case _:
    print("multiple")

#goto/label

for i in range(10):
  for j in range(10):
    for k in range(10):
      -> exit

== exit ==
print('exit')

Change the control flow unconditionaly in pocketpy.

#Python Loops

#Basic

primes = [2, 3, 5, 7]
for prime in primes:
    print(prime)

Prints: 2 3 5 7

#With index

animals = ["dog", "cat", "mouse"]
# enumerate() adds counter to an iterable
for i, value in enumerate(animals):
    print(i, value)

Prints: 0 dog 1 cat 2 mouse

#While

x = 0
while x < 4:
    print(x)
    x += 1  # Shorthand for x = x + 1

Prints: 0 1 2 3

#Break

x = 0
for index in range(10):
    x = index * 10
    if index == 5:
    	break
    print(x)

Prints: 0 10 20 30 40

#Continue

for index in range(3, 8): 
    x = index * 10
    if index == 5:
    	continue
    print(x)

Prints: 30 40 60 70

#Range

for i in range(4):
    print(i) # Prints: 0 1 2 3

for i in range(4, 8):
    print(i) # Prints: 4 5 6 7

for i in range(4, 10, 2):
    print(i) # Prints: 4 6 8

#zip(a, b)

words = ['Mon', 'Tue', 'Wed']
nums = [1, 2, 3]

# Use zip to pack two iterables
for w, n in zip(words, nums):
    print(f"{n}:{w}", end=", ")

Prints: 1:Mon, 2:Tue, 3:Wed,

#for/else

nums = [60, 70, 30, 110, 90]
for n in nums:
    if n > 100:
        print(f"{n} is bigger than 100")
        break
else:
    print("Not found!")

Also see: Python Tips

#Python Functions

#Basic

def hello_world():  
    print('Hello, World!')

#Return

def add(x, y):
    print(f"x is {x}, y is {y}")
    return x + y

add(5, 6)    # => 11

#Positional arguments

def varargs(*args):
    return args

varargs(1, 2, 3)  # => (1, 2, 3)

Type of "args" is tuple.

#Keyword arguments

def keyword_args(**kwargs):
    return kwargs

# => {"big": "foot", "loch": "ness"}
keyword_args(big="foot", loch="ness")

Type of "kwargs" is dict.

#Default arguments

def power(x, y=2):
    return x ** y

power(2)    # => 4
power(2, 3) # => 8

Default arguments must be literal values, not variables or expressions.

#Returning multiple

def swap(x, y):
    return y, x

x = 1
y = 2
x, y = swap(x, y)  # => x = 2, y = 1

#Default Value

def add(x, y=10):
    return x + y

add(5)      # => 15
add(5, 20)  # => 25

#Anonymous functions

# => True
(lambda x: x > 2)(3)

# => 5
(lambda x, y: x ** 2 + y ** 2)(2, 1)

#Python Modules

#Import modules

import math
print(math.sqrt(16))  # => 4.0

#From a module

from math import ceil, floor
print(ceil(3.7))   # => 4.0
print(floor(3.7))  # => 3.0

#Import all

from math import *

#Shorten module

import math as m

# => True
math.sqrt(16) == m.sqrt(16)

#Functions and attributes

import math
dir(math)

#Python File Handling

#Read lines

#Line by Line

with open("myfile.txt") as file:
    for line in file:   # not iterable
        print(line)

#With line number

file = open('myfile.txt', 'r')
for i, line in enumerate(file, start=1):
    print(f"Number {i}: {line}")

#String

#Write a string

contents = {"aa": 12, "bb": 21}
with open("myfile1.txt", "w") as file:
    file.write(str(contents))

#Read a string

with open('myfile1.txt', "r") as file:
    contents = file.read()
print(contents)

#Object

#Write an object

contents = {"aa": 12, "bb": 21}
with open("myfile2.txt", "w+") as file:
    file.write(json.dumps(contents))

#Read an object

with open('myfile2.txt', "r+") as file:
    contents = json.load(file)
print(contents)

#Delete a File

import os
os.remove("myfile.txt")

#Check and Delete

import os
if os.path.exists("myfile.txt"):
    os.remove("myfile.txt")
else:
    print("The file does not exist")

#Delete Folder

import os
os.rmdir("myfolder")

#Python Classes & Inheritance

#Defining

class MyNewClass:
    pass

# Class Instantiation
my = MyNewClass()

#Constructors

class Animal:
    def __init__(self, voice):
        self.voice = voice
 
cat = Animal('Meow')
print(cat.voice)    # => Meow
 
dog = Animal('Woof') 
print(dog.voice)    # => Woof

#Method

class Dog:

    # Method of the class
    def bark(self):
        print("Ham-Ham")
 
charlie = Dog()
charlie.bark()   # => "Ham-Ham"

#Class Variables

class MyClass:
    class_variable = "A class variable!"

# => A class variable!
print(MyClass.class_variable)

x = MyClass()
 
# => A class variable!
print(x.class_variable)

#Super() Function

class ParentClass:
    def test(self):
        print("Parent Method")
 
class ChildClass(ParentClass):
    def test(self):
        print("Child Method")
        # Calls the parent's test()
        super(ChildClass, self).test() 

>>> child_instance = ChildClass()
>>> child_instance.test()
Child Method
Parent Method

#repr() method

class Employee:
    def __init__(self, name):
        self.name = name
 
    def __repr__(self):
        return self.name
 
john = Employee('John')
print(john)  # => John

#User-defined exceptions

class CustomError(Exception):
    pass

#Polymorphism

class ParentClass:
    def print_self(self):
        print('A')
 
class ChildClass(ParentClass):
    def print_self(self):
        print('B')
 
obj_A = ParentClass()
obj_B = ChildClass()
 
obj_A.print_self() # => A
obj_B.print_self() # => B

#Overriding

class ParentClass:
    def print_self(self):
        print("Parent")
 
class ChildClass(ParentClass):
    def print_self(self):
        print("Child")
 
child_instance = ChildClass()
child_instance.print_self() # => Child

#Inheritance

class Animal: 
    def __init__(self, name, legs):
        self.name = name
        self.legs = legs
        
class Dog(Animal):
    def sound(self):
        print("Woof!")
 
Yoki = Dog("Yoki", 4)
print(Yoki.name) # => YOKI
print(Yoki.legs) # => 4
Yoki.sound()     # => Woof!

#Python Type Hints (Since Python 3.5)

#Variable & Parameter

string: str = "ha"
times: int = 3


# wrong hit, but run correctly
result: str = 1 + 2
print(result)  # => 3


def say(name: str, start: str = "Hi"):
    return start + ", " + name

print(say("Python"))  # => Hi, Python

#Built-in data type

from typing import Dict, Tuple, List

bill: Dict[str, float] = {
    "apple": 3.14,
    "watermelon": 15.92,
    "pineapple": 6.53,
}
completed: Tuple[str] = ("DONE",)
succeeded: Tuple[int, str] = (1, "SUCCESS")
statuses: Tuple[str, ...] = (
    "DONE", "SUCCESS", "FAILED", "ERROR",
)
codes: List[int] = (0, 1, -1, -2)

#Built-in data type (3.10+)

bill: dict[str, float] = {
    "apple": 3.14,
    "watermelon": 15.92,
    "pineapple": 6.53,
}
completed: tuple[str] = ("DONE",)
succeeded: tuple[int, str] = (1, "SUCCESS")
statuses: tuple[str, ...] = (
    "DONE", "SUCCESS", "FAILED", "ERROR",
)
codes: list[int] = (0, 1, -1, -2)

#Positional argument

def calc_summary(*args: int):
    return sum(args)

print(calc_summary(3, 1, 4))  # => 8

Indicate all arguments' type is int.

#Returned

def say_hello(name) -> str:
    return "Hello, " + name

var = "Python"
print(say_hello(var))  # => Hello, Python

#Union returned

from typing import Union

def resp200(meaningful) -> Union[int, str]:
    return "OK" if meaningful else 200

Means returned value type may be int or str.

#Keyword argument

def calc_summary(**kwargs: int):
    return sum(kwargs.values())

print(calc_summary(a=1, b=2))  # => 3

Indicate all parameters' value type is int.

#Multiple returns

def resp200() -> (int, str):
    return 200, "OK"

returns = resp200()
print(returns)  # => (200, 'OK')
print(type(returns))  # tuple

#Union returned (3.10+)

def resp200(meaningful) -> int | str:
    return "OK" if meaningful else 200

Since Python 3.10

#Property

class Employee:
    name: str
    age: int

    def __init__(self, name, age):
        self.name = name
        self.age = age
        self.graduated: bool = False

#Self instance

class Employee:
    name: str

    def set_name(self, name) -> "Employee":
        self.name = name
        return self

    def copy(self) -> 'Employee':
        return type(self)(self.name)

#Self instance (3.11+)

from typing import Self

class Employee:
    name: str
    age: int

    def set_name(self: Self, name) -> Self:
        self.name = name
        return self

#Type & Generic

from typing import TypeVar, Type

T = TypeVar("T")

# "mapper" is a type, like int, str, MyClass and so on.
# "default" is an instance of type T, such as 314, "string", MyClass() and so on.
# returned is an instance of type T too.
def converter(raw, mapper: Type[T] = None, default: T = None) -> T:
    try:
        return mapper(raw)
    except:
        return default

raw: str = '4'
result: int = converter(raw, mapper=int, default=0)

#Function

from typing import TypeVar, Callable, Any

T = TypeVar("T")

def converter(raw, mapper: Callable[[Any], T] = None, default: T = None) -> T:
    try:
        return mapper(raw)
    except:
        return default

# Callable[[Any], ReturnType] means a function declare like:
# def func(arg: Any) -> ReturnType:
#     pass

# Callable[[str, int], ReturnType] means a function declare like:
# def func(string: str, times: int) -> ReturnType:
#     pass

# Callable[..., ReturnType] means a function declare like:
# def func(*args, **kwargs) -> ReturnType:
#     pass

def is_success(value) -> bool:
    return value in (0, "OK", True, "success")

resp = {'code': 0, 'message': 'OK', 'data': []}
successed: bool = converter(resp['message'], mapper=is_success, default=False)

#Miscellaneous

#Comments

# This is a single line comments.
""" Multiline strings can be written
    using three "s, and are often used
    as documentation.
"""
''' Multiline strings can be written
    using three 's, and are often used
    as documentation.
'''

#Generators

>>> def f(n):
...    for i in range(n):
...        yield i
>>> list(f(5))
[0, 1, 2, 3, 4]
>>>
>>> def g(n):
...     yield from range(n)
>>> list(g(4))
[0, 1, 2, 3]

Generators help you make lazy code.

#Generator expressions

values = (-x for x in [1,2,3,4,5])

sum(
    x * x for x in range(10)
)  # sum of squares

#Handle exceptions

try:
    # Use "raise" to raise an error
    raise IndexError("This is an index error")
except TypeError:
    pass    # won't catch the IndexError
except IndexError:
    print("An index error occurred")
# (unsupport) finally:
#     print("This will always be called")